Functions from grunts and you will strong grunts created by territorial guys and you may grunts developed by ladies of your own corkwing wrasse
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Dining table 2. For men, quantity of tunes analysed is given once the final number in addition to a number of tunes analysed per personal within the mounts. For males, quantity of colony websites equal what number of people filed, for females, it represents the number of nests at which we seen her or him. Male sound characteristics was in fact averaged on private height ahead of calculating the fresh presented study. Mean ± SD | Median is offered on level of pulses per sound, stage, heartrate and dominating regularity

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Profile step three. Numerous heart circulation musical produced by the newest corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you will associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off an excellent territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt regarding an excellent territorial men corkwing hoe iemand een bericht te sturen op bbpeoplemeet wrasse. (c) Grunt out of a female corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram options: 50 dB vibrant assortment, Hamming windows (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s screen length (male and female grunt), 0.08 s screen length (male deep grunt)

Contour step three. Several pulse musical produced by the fresh new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you can involved spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off a great territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt from a territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt away from a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: 50 dB active variety, Hamming window (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s window length (male and female grunt), 0.08 s screen length (men deep grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-pulse sounds

Your selection of certainly assignable ticks triggered the analysis off 102 men ticks away from 30 films of 19 some one and you will 66 female presses away from 20 clips at the nests away from 14 men. Your choice of demonstrably assignable plops lead to the analysis out of 73 men plops out of 28 video clips away from 18 films and you may 66 girls plops regarding 21 videos within nests away from fourteen males. Averaging male music each private men led to an example sized n = 18 having ticks, and you may n = 17 for plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: t48.4 = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).